Vibration Dampening Iron Design for Golf Balls

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Vibration dampening is an important consideration when it comes to designing and manufacturing golf clubs. Vibrations transmitted through the club during ball striking can have an adverse effect on performance and accuracy if not properly addressed. In the past decade, golf club designers have been tackling this issue which has led to developments in vibration dampening and related materials.

vibration dampening materials

Karsten Manufacturing, the creator of PING golf clubs, recently disclosed a patent application which showcased a club head design that the company was working on. This club head is expected to work wonders in reducing the issue of head vibration. A club head comprises of a strike face, back face, heel region, toe region, opposite the strike face and opposite the heel region. It also includes a cavity which is integral for the toe region and extends parallel to the strike face. This cavity also comprises of a Vibration dampening materials.

Golf club heads are often designed to accommodate the preferences of the individual as well as his or her ability and skill. Nevertheless, most golfers can agree experiencing vibration in the club after they hit the ball is not desirable. To prevent this from happening, manufacturers use vibration dampening materials to lessen the impact of vibration during golf play, while making sure that they maintain the necessary elements to assist individuals in their game.

Vibration Damping Material

Of particular importance in Karsten Manufacturing’s design is cavity 110, which extends from the heel region to the toe region. This cavity is used to cover the opening between the toe region and the opening in the heel region. Other examples also have cavities in a single opening at the toe region or the heel region.

According to the figures attached with the patent reports, the cavity is slightly smaller in size than the filler material which inserts into the cavity. Yet other examples use injectable devices which can be used to inject an expandable type of filler. In such embodiments, the cavity can be closed at both ends, except for the single access point/ opening which can be located in the toe region or the heel region.

This cavity can be configured to meet the exact needs of the golfer. It comprises of a tube-shaped cylinder that extends from the heel to toe and comprises of a wall which defines a portion of the cavity and extends from the back face of the club head towards the sole.

Eco Mass Technologies - vibration dampening

The filler material that is used to fill the cavity offers the Vibration damping functions that many golfers look for in their club heads. It makes use of materials that are dense and soft such as high density thermoplastics or composite materialswhich can dampen vibrations transmitted through the club head. Moreover, these vibration dampening materials can be in a solid state or can be injected, sprayed, molded or poured into the cavity.

One example of embodiment shows the filler material consisting of an elastomer composite made using a rubber-type material having metal ball bearings to create a rubber-metal matrix. In other examples, the filler material occupies only one portion of the cavity and a honeycomb-type material that is full of air pockets is placed in the cavity so that it doesn’t entirely fill the cavity. Yet other examples use two filler densities, wherein the first extends from the heel region to the center line while the second extends from the toe region to the center line. Other vibration damping material possibilities include metal powder filled heavy plastics to injection mold to form.

Gunshot Wounds A Source of Lead?

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Lead poisoning can be really hard to detect as people with high levels of blood often seem to be healthy in the early stages. In most cases, symptoms and signs of lead poisoning doesn’t appear until the lead in your blood reaches dangerous levels. And if we didn’t have enough to worry about with bullets and all those shootouts, turns out that getting shot could also expose you to lead poisoning. And that’s just another reason to encourage a switch to lead free ammunition!

Lead free ammunition

How is it a Danger Really?

According to the Centers for Disease Control, more than 450 people were diagnosed with high levels of blood due to gunshot wounds between the years 2003 to 2012. The report says that this lead comes from fragments that end up staying in the body and are not removed. These fragments are hardly ever reported, but are almost always a major cause of lead toxicity. In most cases, symptoms are non-specific and can appear years after one suffers from a gunshot wound.

According to Debora Weiss, a CDC epidemiologist who works at the Wisconsin Department of Health Services, common signs of lead poisoning include abdominal pain, memory loss and fatigue. Gunshot wounds cause 115000 injuries each year in the United States, and roughly 70% of these aren’t fatal. However, these bullets aren’t usually removed unless the procedure is easy, less painful and not dangerous, and in most cases, the bullets used aren’t lead free ammunition.

Frangible bullets

Weiss and her team consulted a database of lead toxicity in adults from 41 states. Out of the 145000 cases found, 450 could directly be attributed to bullet fragments that were left behind in the body.

The Damages Caused by Lead

Lead at any level is toxic. When the levels rise above 10 nanograms per decilitre, a person can suffer from issues such as miscarriages, brain damage, kidney damage and high blood pressure. In fact, 17 of the457 patients had levels of lead that were at least 8 times higher!

Lead doesn’t just affect adults and kids. It can also kill wildlife and affect nature. The bullets enter the blood streams of predators and scavengers as hunters often leave behind carcasses of prey animals. Lead even enters groundwater through weights that are commonly used in fish tackles or through fish that are already subjected to lead poisoning.

Young children and unborn babies are the most affected by this dangerous metal as it can easily destroy developing brain tissue and nerve cells and the effects simply cannot be reversed.

NASA to Test Radiation Shielding Vests on Lunar Mission

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NASA plans to send astronauts to Mars in the 2030s on a mission that could possibly shape the future of humanity for all eternity. Likely touted to be the most dramatic mission since Neil Armstrong first set foot on the moon, this mission could very well be the pioneering mission that sees humanity venturing towards other planets in search of new homes and great adventures.

Lead Free Radiation Shielding - Ecomass Compounds

This 250 million mile voyage is sure to be fun and exciting, but it is also full of peril. One of the main issues that astronauts shall face on their journey is the constant barrage of dangerous particles from the sun in the form of solar radiation. To ensure their well-being, Tel Aviv-based StemRad, a NASA contractor, recently unveiled the AstroRad Radiation Shield that is made of and Radiation shielding materials and is already ready for real-world trials. Mockups have already been made and tested and the first protective vest is expected to be produced by the end of the year. NASA even plans to test this vest in a lunar flyby mission scheduled for 2018!

The vest is designed in layers to look like a contoured map and need to be tailor-made for each individual. They use non-metallic and lead free shielding materials to protect body organs from radioactive particles and prevent any unwanted damage. This vest shall be strapped onto a device that monitors radiation absorption during the lunar flyby mission and this shall then be compared to an unprotected monitor to gather more data and test the vest in a real world application.

The concept has already been proven to work in a controlled laboratory setting, but one cannot be entirely certain until NASA’s Exploratory Mission-1, a joint collaboration between European Space Agency, Lockheed Martin and NASA is a go. The mission is currently expected to be an unmanned, but NASA is also exploring the feasibility of sending two astronauts.

lead free shielding

StemRad CEO Oren Milstein believes that radiation shielding materials such as this vest shall make further deep space exploration possible. “Our breakthrough has come in creating the architecture of the multi-layered shield to accurately cover the most important organs,” says Milstein.

Moreover, the lunar flyby isn’t the only space mission planned for next year. Space X recently announced that it plans to fly two tourists around the moon in the year 2018 as well. Mission Mars just seems to have come one step closer to becoming a reality!

Copper Pipe Deal Finally in Place, Flint Moves Forward in its Road to Recovery

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The long turbulent road to recovery from the lead crisis of 2014 has forced residents to depend on filtered and bottled water to save themselves from the dangers of lead poisoning. That ordeal might finally be coming to an end as Mayor Keren Weaver announced that members of the Copper Development Association Inc. helped the city acquire 200,000 feet of copper pipes at a discount of $1 million to replace the lead-tainted pipes of about 5000 homes.

lead replacement

Lead poisoning has haunted Flint for far too long and news of Lead replacement come as a much-needed relief for citizens who constantly live in the fear of things like premature births, learning difficulties, high blood pressure, developmental delays and joint pains. This deal is the latest to become a part of the Fast Start initiative, a program to remove lead-tainted iron service lines and LSLs, starting with the worst affected areas and houses that have kids and senior citizen.

The Copper Vs. Plastic Dilemma

Copper Pipe

Flint long debated the copper vs. plastic pipe dilemma after CEO Walter Wang of JM Eagle offered to provide free polyethylene pipes to replace the lead service lines of all homes and businesses in the city, but a 1 million discount seems to have swung things in copper’s favor. High density plastic pipes are still under consideration though as the city plans to replace about 20,000 service lines that connect the water mains to city homes at a cost of $106 million over the next 3 years.

It is believed that JM Eagle’s offer prompted a research on the choice of pipes which boosted copper’s bid as the lead replacement material. Longevity was one of the key considerations with copper pipes enjoying life spans of 60 – 80 years compared to the 25 – 30 years offered by PE. The analysis also gave value to copper’s salvage value and raised concerns such as the taste and smell of water and the release of volatile organic compounds.

The pipe alliance has however argued that high density plastic pipes have been used to deliver water in the western United States since 1959, even in places with droughts or high seismic activity, because of its ability to offer a strong and flexible solution that doesn’t leak.

There is also talk about a pilot experiment being conducted to use high density plastic pipes as a lead replacement for service lines in several city blocks. Local contractors are expected to be trained to install these lines using a trenchless method. With the pipe bursting technology, we can be in and out of there in two weeks,” says Peter Dyke, executive director, Alliance for PE Pipe.

Winds of Change?

According to the analysis conducted by Flint, “there appears to be movement from plastics back to copper” when it comes to service lines. However, engineered thermoplastic pipes are also touted as instruments of change. The city of Livonia was one of the early adopters of PE pipes and those have been around for roughly 5 decades. Moreover, PVC is already used in several parts of the water distribution system and has been installed in cities such as Mount Morris and Burton.

“Michigan is using a lot of PVC pipe now and we’re very excited about the $1 trillion in infrastructure spending that may happen in the next 10 years under the federal program,” says VesoSobot, Director of Corporate Affairs for Ontario-based piping systems manufacturer Ipex Inc. Even Hamilton, Ontario, Flint’s sister city, has begun using PVC pipes for its water supply delivery mechanism.

thermoplastic composite materials

While the city might be currently mooting copper, the key argument that seems to be keeping thermoplastic composite materials in consideration as lead replacement options for Flint is that they are far superior hydraulically and can work wonders in helping save electricity while pumping water while reducing the amount of water main breaks at the same time.

Lead Poisoning Claims Even More Victims

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Lead has been used by humans in various forms throughout the ages. From cooking utensils and beauty to commercial and industrial applications, this deadly toxin found its way into all walks of life before humans woke up and realized the danger that it posed in front of humanity and its future generations. Lead was consequently banned in the United States by the mid-nineties, but somewhat bafflingly, it is still used in bullets used to hunt small animals and game birds and in fish tackle. And this is when lead free ammunition is easily and readily available!

lead free ammunition

The case of lead poisoning is nothing new. Ask any resident of Flint on the dangers of lead and they would probably tell you horror stories as they recount their experience of having to deal with one of the worst health disasters in recent U.S. history. As a society, we seem to be ignorant to the dangers of lead, and that’s a huge surprise considering that agencies have been trying to promote lead free ammunition and educate people on the dangers of lead and lead poisoning for decades.

Bald eagles are the latest victims of lead with cases being reported all over the country. These birds often feed on carcasses that were killed by hunters using lead based ammunition and end up getting exposed to the dangers of lead. The problem is particularly concerning in the Midwest during deer hunting season as hunters often leave gut piles behind which are then scavenged by bald eagles.

One such bald eagle just succumbed to its death in Arlington despite the best efforts of the Sarvey Wildlife Care Center on the very same day when Interior Secretary Ryan Zinkecanceled a last-minute action taken by President Barack Obama to phase out lead based fish tackle and ammunition in national wildlife refuges by the year 2022.

Suzanne West, Director of Sarvey Wildlife Care Center recounts the plight of the dying bird. “This bird made very heart-breaking crying sounds all throughout the day and night. We can only try and hope for the best.” Such was the level of toxicity that the poor creature was subjected to that despite their best efforts, the center’s personnel couldn’t save the bird or reverse the effects of poisoning.

The order issued by the Obama administration was intended to protect these very birds from lead poisoning and promote the use of lead free ammunition. This ammunition, sometimes referred to as green ammo, is produced from frangible bullets made from nontoxic plastic or metal composite materials. However, reports state that Zinke believed that the order would have led to an increase in fishing, hunting and recreational shooting on lands that are currently managed by the Fish and Wildlife Service. The former congressman also highlighted the importance of consulting local communities and industry experts before passing such actions.

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And it isn’t just the bald eagles or nature that is a victim of lead. Small children have also tested positive for lead poisoning after consuming meat from animals that were shot using lead ammunition. “It is bad for wildlife and it’s bad for kids,” says LessanaLahner, a Sarvey veterinarian. She urges using lead free ammunition such as lead-free frangible projectiles or copper bullets, both of which are proven save for wildlife and non-toxic for humans.

Why You Should Switch to Frangible Ammo

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Bullets have been around for a really long time. Man began using bullets made out of lead, stone or clay millennia before the concept of firearms was even developed and the Romans even managed to take the basic bullet to the next level with whistling bullets that traveled at speeds of 100 meters per second and were made using 1-ounce lead balls in their centers. The modern-day bullet has evolved tremendously, with one particular invention holding center stage- the frangible bullet.

The Purpose of a Frangible Bullet

Frangible bullets

Frangible projectiles were first created for shooting galleries back in the mid-20th century, but as science started to gain a foothold in the industry and the world progressed to a new era, these projectiles became more and more advanced. The main purpose of a frangible bullet is to eliminate or reduce the chance of a backsplash or a ricochet. While the early projectiles were more about minimizing injuries, the modern-day bullets are also about self defense and close-quarter battle.

The Composition of a Modern Day Frangible Projectile

The modern day frangible bullet is made with powder metallurgy, a process that requires sintering and pressing powdered metals into the shape of the bullet. Copper is the most commonly used metal because of its ductile and malleable properties, and also because it easily deforms under comprehensive and tensile stress. Other metals like tin are used as binding agents. The frangibility of these projectiles makes them the ideal choice for self defense, hunting and steel plate shooting. Not only do they offer a cleaner kill and the best chance to drop the attacker, they also disintegrate on impact to reduce the risk of wounding bystanders due to over-penetration.

A Cause for Concern?

Many shooters believe that lightweight projectiles are not accurate. However, when tested in real life situations, every caliber of frangible bullets turned out to be as accurate as non-frangible counterparts at distances that varied from 7 yards to 25 yards. With great accuracy, came great precision as well. In simple terms, accuracy is when you hit the target. Precision is when you hit the exact group where you wanted your bullet to land.

frangible projectiles

Getting the Job Done

Frangible projectiles aren’t just a great option for steel plates. They’re obviously a great choice for close quarter training, but they can also take your hunting and self defense to the next level. Permanent wound cavities, shattered bones and penetration depth ensure that they have a devastating effect on the target, while a lack of ricochet means that they only affect the intended target and not an innocent bystander. With frangible bullets, you’ll always have the option to get the job done quickly, while making sure it gets done right!

If you’re still to explore the world of frangible projectiles, it’s high time you get into the game. There’s no ricochet, no over-penetration, no backlash and the perfect aim. What’s not to love about this modern-day ammo!

Vibration Damping Materials Enjoying Global Recognition

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Vibration damping materials are becoming more and more important in modern-day industrial and electronic tools and applications. They can be used to reduce or eliminate noise in cases where vibration and resonance are common problems as well. These materials essentially change the natural vibrating frequency of a product to reduce the radiated noise and increase the transmission loss of the material.

An Increased Demand

Recent years have seen the world waking up to the boons of using vibration damping as a source of reducing noise and improving performance. An increased demand is also expected to see a huge rise in the revenue generated from Vibration dampening materials. This increase is primarily due to the increase in demand of durable products, and also because of new-found uses for vibration damping materials in the fields of automobiles, health care and power tools. The improved global standards of living have also contributed to market growth.

Types of Vibration Damping Materials

The market for vibration damping materials can be divided on the basis of materials such as polycarboxylic acid ammonium salt, calcium carbonate, thermal expansion microcapsule, mica and polyacrylic acid ester. These materials can also be separated on the basis of the types of vibration damping solutions that they offer. Common examples include tuned viscoelastic damping, constrained damping and unconstrained damping. These materials can also be segregated on the basis of product type such as vibration damping pads, damping foam, and more. Yet another method of distinguishing vibration dampening materials is on the basis of applications such as electronics, automobiles, protective equipment, hand tools and archery.

The Global Vibration Dampening Material Industry

The Vibration damping material industry is segregated into key regions: Japan, Middle East, Africa, Western and Eastern Europe, Latin America, Asia-Pacific and North America. Western Europe and North America are mature markets for manufacturers of vibration damping materials. However, Middle East, Africa and Asia-Pacific are also expected to emerge as key markets for global players in the vibration dampening material industry. In fact, the Asia-Pacific region is expected to grow the fastest till 2026.

A Peek into the Future

Vibration dampening companies are placing a lot of emphasis on developing new products to help maintain the competitive advantage that the global vibration damping market is enjoying in recent years. To maintain this advantage and increase global demand, these companies are now striving towards kosher certification in a bid to expand the product portfolio and diversify sale strategies. Maintaining market share while tapping the new and emerging markets is sure to be a key challenge, but as more and more vibration dampening materials are developed, the more the world is likely to see new uses for these incredible advancements of science.

Taking the Fight to Lead Poisoning

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Lead poisoning. You can’t live with it, and given how negligent we’ve been as a society to the whole issue, you certainly can’t live without it! In a sea of news talking about kids across towns and cities suffering from lead poisoning and toxic threats causing irreparable damage to the environment, it really made our day to learn that many public officials are now using advanced measures and lead alternatives to protect kids from lead poisoning. And we just HAVE to share this with you!!

Time to Take Action?

After a Reuters report identified more than 1100 communities where kids are showing rates of lead poisoning that are at least the double of Flint, public officials have finally started taking action through advanced screening measures, property inspections and Lead replacements. From Washington to Florida, health officials and property inspectors have begun conducting these programs and started educating locals on the dangers of lead poisoning and how to save their kids from the issue. The University of Notre Dame even offers a graduate course that lets students learn more about the issue and combat the issue.

‘Lead poisoning can cause immense damage to a child’s cognitive development and no amount of exposure can be termed as ‘safe exposure’. If you discover the presence of lead poisoning in the neighborhood, it is essential to look at lead alternatives and get rid of the issue as soon and as effectively as possible.

Dreaming of a Lead-Free World

‘We are acting with a sense of urgency because kids here depend on it,” says Heidi Beidinger-Burnett, professor at the Eck Institute for Global Health. Officials are also exploring lead replacements and measures to help protect children. Indiana Senator recently introduced a bill that shall compel the health department to double the blood lead screening rates of children enrolled in Medicaid.

Not to be left behind, California proposed a resolution that requires property owners to obtain safety certificates and lead inspections before selling or renting houses built before 1978. “We need to address that issue, that’s the bottom line,” agrees councilman Noel Gallo.

Joining the Act

Downwinders, a clean air advocacy group in Dallas, is planning an event that strives to address issues such as shuttered lead smelters and other lingering health hazards. Says director Jim Schermbeck, “Having five to six times the national average of high blood lead readings… has been getting people’s attention”

St. Joseph, Missouri, a place where as many as 120 kids had been poisoned with lead within a 15 block radius in the past 7 years also convened a meeting for department heads to discuss Lead replacement and strategies to get rid of the issue and save the city’s future.

When the dangers of lead first became clear, US regulatory agencies began the task of eliminating this metal from plumbing, paint and gasoline. However, the efforts made in the existing water supply infrastructure were limited, and this still manages to cause problems so many decades later. As we’re finally waking up to the dangers of lead, protecting ourselves against lead with lead replacements and lead alternatives becomes even more important.

Specific-Gravity Thermoplastics Open New Doors

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Thermoplastics and High density materials continue another year of growth as recent developments and innovative design changes allow these materials to offer even more benefits in all kinds of environments and applications. Thermoplastics found a place in mainstream business due to their ability to decrease the part count or weight of parts in a particular tool or appliance. Turns out that a new class of heavy plastics and high density compounds are entering the picture, ones that have a specific gravity varying between 1.8 to 10.

A Bit of History

To better understand how this could revolutionize the manufacturing process, let’s take a look at how engineered thermoplastics are made. After a base resin has been chosen, its electrical, mechanical and physical properties are altered and manipulated to achieve desired state. Fillers and replacements such as rubber tougheners (for flexibility), carbon-black fillers (for electrical conductivity) and glass fiber (for strength) are carefully chosen and added to finally create a material that can work wonders in making the manufacturing process faster, smoother and cheaper.

thermoplastic

How are High-Specific-Gravity Compounds Created?

High-specific-gravity compounds are created by combining adding mineral or metallic fillers in thermoplastics. Base resins commonly used in this care are crystalline thermoplastics because of their flow properties. Common examples include polyesters, polypropylene, polyurethane and polyamides. Surface chemistry of fillers and particle size distribution is also important to ensure optimal processability..

The Journey from Light to Heavy

High-specific-gravity compounds can be classified into three different weight classes. Lightweight high-specific-gravity compounds have a specific gravity which varies between 1.8 to 4. These heavy plastics are commonly used in medical devices and to replace aluminium, clay or glass. Some of these compounds are used to add strength while others may be used to improve toughness. These compounds can be pigmented from brighter to darker tones.

Middleweight high-specific-gravity compounds have a specific gravity that varies between 4 to 7. These materials are usually designed to become magnetic and they fall in the same class as die-cast zinc. Many safety-restraint components used in automobiles are made using these high density materials and these parts can be colored in darker hues.

Finally, heavyweight high-specific-gravity compounds have a specific gravity that varies between 7 and 10. They offer solutions similar to lead, stainless steel and bronze and are a fantastic lead replacement for shielding x-rays in medical applications. Training rounds are also made using these compounds to minimize the use of lead while allowing the material to withstand muzzle pressure and still manage to disintegrate upon impact. Another application of heavyweight high-specific-gravity compounds can be seen in automobile steering columns.

Why is this Important?

What makes these high gravity compounds so special is that they not only manage to consolidate parts and custom-create properties in order to decrease costs, but also present the ability to dialin specific part weights across the density range, which even manages to touch lead and its alloys. To make matters even more interesting, these engineered thermoplastic composite materials also come with special abilities such as magnetic properties, noise reduction, frangibility, x-ray opacity and x-ray shielding. High-specific-gravity compounds are injection moldable in metal replacement solutions, which also eliminates the need for assembly operations and secondary machining, further reducing costs across the manufacturing channel.

Importance of Radiation Safety in Healthcare

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Thomas Edison made history when he invented the fluoroscope, but soon stopped his research after his assistant died from x-ray overdose. Marie Curie changed the world when she discovered radium, but soon died due to exposure. Modern-day experts have a far better understanding of how radiation works and are much better equipped to protect themselves from radiation poisoning with the help of radiation shielding and radiation protection methods. However, since radiation is odourless and invisible, it is easy to get complacent about its dangers, and that’s where we’re failing as a society. Radiation exposure can lead to all sorts of health issues, and it is essential to understand the importance of radiation safety.

Radiation in Healthcare

Radiation is commonly used in the field of healthcare, as it aids both patients as well as workers in several ways. Its regular need and pressing timelines also mean that it is often one of the most abused practices in the field, with many approaching radiation protection and radiation shielding in a wrong or incomplete manner. The dangers posed by radiation got a lot of attention when the New York Times published a number of expose on radiation overexposure and treatment accidents. This made the FDA and OSHA take a closer look at the issue.

The Issue of Radiation Safety

One of the main caused of overexposure to radiation is that most people who work with radiation protection and radiation shielding in healthcare only receive rudimentary training. While interventional radiologists are fully trained to use radiation safely, vascular surgeons and interventional cardiologists receive basic training and they may be unaware of the best risk reduction and safety procedures. To make matters worse, while radiologists have radiologic technologists as key members of their team, vascular surgeons and interventional cardiologists mostly have nurses for company.

Another issue is that people often use much more radiation than required. Unlike Japan or the EU, the United States places a great amount of stress on high quality images and this means more radiation.

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Keeping a Check on Radiation

Radiation protection is the responsibility of the radiation safety officer and technologists who work in the radiation safety department in most hospitals. The safety officer keeps a track of the exposure faced by healthcare workers and all those exposed to radiation must undergo exposure assessment on a monthly basis. The state performs an inspection once or twice a year as well. Another preventive measure is that the Joint Commission requires all hospitals to have written procedures to help people understand the precautions to use before radiation exposure and learn more about how to use radiation shielding materials and radiation protection tools when dealing with hazardous materials such as x-ray equipment and tools that emit radiation.

Getting Complacent

All said and done, it’s quite easy and normal for workers to get complacent about radiation safety demanding the pressing and stressful nature of their jobs. Hospitals often get very busy and often times clinicians forget to wear the badge.

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Improving Radiation Safety Standards

Luckily for those involved, it is very easy to make improvements in radiation safety. The most basic, and probably the first step to radiation protection, is to make those who work with radiation undergo a basic radiation protection course. It is also essential to ensure that technologists and nurses are encouraged to speak up and bring their concerns forward. Proper communication often helps solve most problems before they become serious. Reducing the amount of radiation dose also works wonders as it benefits patients as well as workers who get exposed to the radiation scatter.

Radiation shielding is another important method of protecting against radiation. Radiation shielding materials include personal shields such as lead glasses and aprons, equipment mounted shields such as protective drapes and architectural shielding.

When treated with the respect it deserves, radiation can be an immensely powerful and useful tool for mankind. However, keeping a check on exposure and making sure that radiation safety practices are followed is essential for the betterment of everyone.