Radiation can be a serious problem in nuclear power generation facilities, as well as in industrial or medical x-rays systems. Radiations are the result of radioactive isotopes, an isotope with an unstable nucleus which contains excess energy. Containing these radiations and preventing them from causing any physical harm to the people utilizing such technologies or facilities is critical. Taking care of human safety and structural material that are compromised by radiation exposure are very important concerns.
The type of radiations determines what process and materials can be used in regulating the general effects and degree of penetration of the radioactive rays. The indirect ionizing radiations include neutrons, gamma rays, and x-rays are shielded differently from the directly ionizing radiations, which are normally charged particles. Different rays require different radiation shielding materials to effectively block a specific type of ray. The interaction between the specific particulate matter and the elemental properties of the material used in shielding determine the type of shielding to be applied.
There are general shielding properties which must be followed. Radiation shielding is usually based on the principle of attenuation. Attenuation is the ability to reduce the rays’ effect by blocking or waving particles through a barrier material. Attenuating charged particles is done through an energy losing process which is achieved by reactions with electrons that acts as a barrier. The x-rays and the gamma radiation are attenuated through photoemission, by pair production, or through scattering. The neutrons are shielded or made less harmful through combining them with elastic and inelastic scattering. The material used for neutron shielding must be constructed with materials which encourage scattering.
In an industrial application the main types of rays which require radiation shielding commonly include gamma rays and x-rays. Gamma and x-rays are forms of electromagnetic radiations with higher energy levels than those that occur in the ultraviolet rays and visible light spectrum.
The factors which determine the selection and use of radioactive shielding include the attenuation effectiveness, resistance to damage, the strength of the rays, the thermal properties, and the cost efficiency. Metals for example have properties like high strength and radiation resistance, nevertheless when exposed to radiation might result in chances in physical properties including the potential for degradation. Material like concrete are also strong and durable, but when they get exposure to radiation they become weaker and less effective at blocking the rays’ penetration.
To reduce the intensity of radiation, the radiation shielding materials property should be studied carefully, and alternative measures taken. A more significant method of #radiation shielding should be adopted, and it is good to seek professional advice when you are planning to shield radioactive materials.