Here’s some brief information about the different types of radiation shielding materials used and the techniques involved:
In most situations, high-density components are more effective than low-density ones for avoiding or reducing the concentration of radiation. However, low-density components can make up for the difference with increased material thickness, which is as significant as solidity in radiation protection programs. Lead is particularly well-suited for reducing the impact of gamma rays and x-rays due to its great atomic number. This number represents the amount of protons within an atom, so a lead atom has a relatively large number of protons along with a corresponding number of electrons. These electrons prevent many of the gamma and x-ray contaminants that attempt to pass through lead, and the level of protection can be improved with thickermaterial walls. However, it is important to remember that there is still potential for some rays making it through a radiation shield, and that a 100% effective radiation shield may not be possible in many situations.
Alpha Ray Shielding
While solidity continues to be an essential attribute for avoiding alpha and beta radiation, thickness is less of an issue. A single centimetre of plastic material is as sufficient for protecting against alpha contaminants as is a half-inch of paper. Lead is in fact worthless in avoiding beta contaminants because beta contaminants can generate additional radiation when moving through components with a greater atomic number and solidity. Instead, plastic materials can be used to achieve an effective shield for working with high-energy beta radiation. When adversely used beta contaminants hit a high-density content, such as tungsten, the electrons are obstructed, but the focus from which the shield is designed to secure can actually become drawn.
Lead is alsoineffective for avoiding neutron radiation, as neutrons are uncharged and can simply go through heavy componentssuccessfully. Materials consisting of low atomic number components are more suitable for avoiding this kind of radiation because they have a greater possibility of developing cross-sections that will communicate with the neutrons. Hydrogen and hydrogen-based components are well-suited for this task. Ingredients with a greater focus of hydrogen atoms, such as water, provide effective neutron radiation control in addition to being relatively affordable radiation protection substances. However, low solidity components can release gamma rays when shielding neutrons. As such, neutron radiation protection is most effective when it features a blend both great and low atomic number components. The low-density content can spread the neutrons through flexible spreading, while the high-density sections prevent the following gamma rays with inelastic spreading. Thermoplastic compounds are ideal to produce such materials as they can be compounded both with high and low atomic number components.